Project Haydn #9 – Symphony No.9

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Symphony No.9 in C major Hob.I:9 (1762)


Anthony van Hoboken (right) with Jeanette and Heinrich Schenker (1930)

The general numbering of Haydn’s symphonies was developed by a Dutch musicologist, Anthony van Hoboken, over a period of 30 years. It must have been a painstaking exercise, sifting through manuscripts and fragments, trying to determine whether they were Haydn’s work and then giving them an accurate chronology. The final catalogue ran for 1936 pages (available in German as a pdf here). The Hoboken Catalogue became the standard very quickly and the numbering of the symphonies has stuck for many years. However, as time has moved on, the limitations of Hoboken’s work has been slowly acknowledged, particularly with respect to the early symphonies. If you want to have a better understanding of the order of composition, then you can find a complete, chronologically correct sequence of the symphonies at the website (

When I started out on this project I decided to follow the Hoboken numbering of the symphonies. Thus, one of the challenges for me is trying to work out where each symphony might fit in terms of the development of Haydn’s craft. The truth is that it adds a little understanding to my appreciation of Haydn’s genius, but I would not say it provides a pradigm shift in how I am coming to view this music. This is not a case like Beethoven or Mahler, where chronology seems so significant in the development of the composer. In the end the pleasure in Haydn’s music comes from the thing itself, which is as it should be.

Haydn’s 9th symphony is chronogically the 23rd he wrote and comes from 1762, at the time he was aready working at the Esterházy court. Written in C major, it is another three movement work, with the Minuet and Trio acting as the closing movement. Being in three movements, the symphony is shaped in the traditions of the operatic sinfonia and overture with three contrasting movements: fast, slow and dance-like. After listening to the magical group of three symphonies No.6 to No.8 this symphony feels like a little bit of a let down, although it is in fact written a year later than those three richly inventive works.

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The opening Allegro molto and the following Andante are, for me, foursquare and polite without really giving any sense of the orginality that marks out Haydn’s finest works. The use of dynamics, with forte and piano alternating, add some colour to the opening movement, but the general level of invention seems less than previously. However, the closing Minuetto-Trio (Allegretto) offers something different. The Minuetto is again is plain, simply spun. The surprise is in the trio section, where Haydn thins out the orchestration to the most delicate of combinations, with first a solo oboe skipping over the simple ¾ accompaniment of the strings, followed by solo oboe and horn then creating thier own dance with the bassons taking on the bass line, before the oboe and strings returning again. For me the Trio is a good example of the uncomplicated pleasures to be found in Haydn’s music. Perhaps not as sophisticated as Mozart, but joyous none the less and a beautiful shaft of C major light.

I have been listening mainly to the recording of this symphony by Antal Doráti, from his wondeful complete set, first released in the 1970s. For the last movement Doráti drops the continuo harpsichord he has been using, making the textures even lighter and sweeter. Hogwood, from what I hear, does the same thing. In looking for a video on YouTube I found one from another source and thought it might be fun to include, but then I listened to the last movement, where the harpsichord continuo was still being used to support the bass line. Now I am no expert or whether the use of a harpsichord is authentic or not, but in this case I immediately felt it took away from the joy of the whole atmosphere that Haydn appears to have striven to create. Sometimes it is better to leave the score well alone. So, back to Doráti and his rather magical oboist (pity about the graphics!).



Project Haydn #8 – Symphony No.8

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Symphony No.8 in G major “Le soir” Hob.I:8 (1761)

As the triptych of symphonies No.6-8 comes to a close, we naturally finish with “Le soir” (Evening). It is hard not to be influenced a little by the nickname when listening to the work, as the first two movements suggest a feeling of evening light. Perhaps this is linked to the use of G major, or perhaps it is just wishful thinking, but I cannot help believing that after the vitaility and sheer joy of the sixth and seventh symphonies, here we have a whistful closure.

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The symphony is, like its cousins, set in four movements. This time there is no slow introduction to the first movement. Instead we immediately launch into an Allegro molto where the strings introduce the melody that will form the thematic material. While Haydn still creates moments where the spotlight falls on solo instrumentation, there is less than in both prior symphonies. Instead we are treated to the playful weaving of the main theme in development, always returning to the tutti strings.

The Andante has hidden charms. Again, we have the interplay between two violins and the cello that dominates the mood of the movement. It is easy to see this music as artless, simple and plain; at least that was my initial reaction when I first listened. But over time you come to realise that there is something comforting in how Haydn plays with simple graces and guileless charm.

The third movement Menuetto and Trio is pretty much what you would expect, perhaps a little foursquare and unpolished. In the trio section a solo double bass features prominantly and sings out like a tipsy straggler enjoying the last embers of the party.

The Presto finale is marked ‘La Tempesta’ and the storm starts in a solo violin, before the flute sounds out the first drops of rain. There is a hint of the pastoral in this movement (could that be G major’s influence too) and the storm that follows is very much a summer storm, short and warm rather than blustery and chastening. It is entirely possible to hear in this something Beethoven would expand on later in his own storm with more force and invention. For Haydn, the gesture is enough – no tone painting here.


N.B. I always like to add a video at the end, so that anybody who is interested can listen to the music, which of course is far better than my words. For this symphony I found a performance where the conductor has made a point of putting the basson and cello together. This makes sense, as Haydn often employs these two together with the basson doubling up the bass line, although anybody used to the usual orchestral setting plan it does look odd. The other reason I enjoyed this performance is the animation of the musicians themselves, who clearly are enjoying themselves with Haydn’s music. It is that sense of fun that is so central to making Haydn speak clearly – his music at this point delights and entertains in equal measure.




Project Haydn #7 – Symphony No.7

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Symphony No.7 in C major “Le midi” Hob.I:7 (1761)

Symphony No.7 is the second in the triptych of works that Haydn composed for his new orchestra after taking up his new post at the Esterházy court. The nickname ‘Le midi’ (Noon) adds little to our understanding of the music, unless one wants to stretch ideas and imagery very thinly. Much better just to listen to the music, which like its predecessor is inspired.

Haydn Sym No.7 .pngAnother four movement work, the symphony opens with a stately ten bar Adagio before moving straight into a boisterous Allegro. There are number of solo interventions throughout, with the solo violin having a prominant concertante like part. Haydn must have been very happy with the level of playing in his orchestra as each section and soloist gets time in the spotlight, includng sparing between two solo violins and woodwinds. As always with Haydn in C major, there is a sense of sunny grandeur. Perhaps it is that which brings it closest to the noonday light.

The second movement is a fascinating, lyrical piece, which for me is as close to the opera house as a concert hall. The opening is marked Recitativo and the solo violin is the main protagonist throughout. Furthering the operatic feel is the frequent marked changes of tempo and the way Haydn carefully deploys other solo instruments to accompany or reflect the solo violin’s mood and emotion. All of this adds to the depth of the movement, giving it a sense of longing and tenderness that just shows how able Haydn was to reach for something special at any moment. Haydn also uses the fermata as a framing device, proving space between each episode. In the end we close with the sparsest of textures, as the violin and cello duet with grace and gentleness, before the tutti strings finally return to close the scene.

The Menuetto begins in typical Haydn fashion, stepping forward confidently. The Trio section carries on the spirit of the previosu two movements as a solo viola and cello (basso) engage in a private dance. The finale Allergo rips along at a real pace, alternating scurrying tutti passages with the solo violin appearing again. This time the solo flute gets extended time to bounce around, together with the woodwinds. Again, like the second movement, Haydn uses pauses to dramatic effect and the whole thing builds on itself to a final sunny closure.

The orchestra Haydn had his disposal at Esterházy was bigger than Count Morzin had been able to offer, but it still was very small by comparison with a modern orchestra, or even the orchestras Haydn would compose for later in his career. The more I listen to these early works, the greater the appreciation I have for Haydn’s ability to make the most of what was at his disposal. Both the 6th and 7th symphonies give principal playes a chance to shine and contribute in ways Haydn had not done in the earlier works.

And so, on to the Symphony No.8…


Project Haydn #6 – Symphony No.6

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Symphony No.6 in D minor “Le matin” Hob.I:6 (1761)

The traditional numbering of the Haydn symphonies is misleading, mainly because the Dutch musicologist Anthony van Hoboken did not have access to all the material, much of which came to light after he had completed his catalogue of Haydn’s compositions. The more you listen to the works in the traditional order, the more this becomes obvious, as stylistically the music seems to jump about too randomly in terms of invention and quality.

The Symphony No.6 was actually the 18th that Haydn wrote, around 1761. It was also the first that he completed after taking up his appointment at the Esterházy court. Haydn had been required to look for new employment because his previous employer, Count Morzin, had been forced to cut back his estate expenses. As the saying goes, when one door closes, another opens. When Haydn joined the Esterházy court he probably had no idea how long and significant this relationship would prove to be.


The Esterházy Palace

One thing Haydn would probably have known was that at the palace he would be working with very talented musicians. It is easy to imagine how much Haydn would have realished the chance to write music in such an environment, where conditions were ideal.  There is, in this symphony, a feeling of liberation that both reflects generously on the confidence in his new orchestra that Haydn must have had, and also in the miraculous level of invention that shines through in this symphony.

Haydn Sym No.6

The opening movement begins with a musical ‘sunrise’, an Adagio motive that rises in a crescendo for forte before the main Allegro begins. As a musical picture it is exceptional,  but it also serves as a wondeful conterbalance to the following Allegro, which opens with an evocative flute solo before we reach the tutti. This is music of great panache and open hearted warmth. Haydn spotlights the woodwinds throughout, giving each moments of great beauty and the chance to really sing. Put this symphony alongside any of the five that Hoboken listed as predecessors and you are struck by the shift in quality and invention.

The second movement again begins Adagio. The scoring is for strings only, but this time Haydn adds a solo violin part (violino concertante). The way Haydn uses these forces has the feeling of a concerto grosso, and the solo violin’s prominance is further heightened by the way Haydn has the violin engage in conversation with a solo cello, alternating this with the violin’s interplay with the collected strings. The movement closes with a return to Adagio, all calmness and light.

The following Menuet another step forward. While the courtly nature of the dance has been maintained, Haydn gives ample opportunity for the instruments ot each get their moment in the spotlight. The flute again begins first, with the basson and a solo double bass taking up the mantle of lead characters in the Trio. What is most striking is how, as always, Haydn manages to do so much without ever tipping over into indulgence or artiface. The Allegro finale closes the symphony with great energy and more exceptional solo interplay, this time between flute, violin and cello; even the horn gets a short moment in the spotlight.

It has been great fun spending the past few days getting to know this symphony. It really is such a joyous, happy work. Just take a look at how much fun Steven Isserlis has directing this while playing his cello:



Project Haydn #5 – Symphony No.5

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Symphony No.5 in A major Hob.I:5 (c1760/62)

Haydn returns back to the four movement symhony with this work, but with another nod to tradition. The movements follow the layout of the ‘Sonata da chiesa‘ (church sonata); Slow – Quick – Slow – Quick.

Haydn Sym No.5

This  symphony is in A major, which Schubart described as being music that contains,

‘… declarations of innocent love, satisfaction with one’s state of affairs; hope of seeing one’s beloved again when parting; youthful cheerfulness and trust in God’.

The opening movement begins with a gracious theme on the violins which could easily be imagined as a declaration of love. A dialogue ensure between the strings and some high horn parts (including some solo writing)  and this interplay or conversation becomes the voicing on which Haydn bases the movement. For me there is a touch of the operatic about this music. Are we in a scene where a first young love is being considered or witnessing the familiar, unspoken love of an old couple? Whatever the picture this music paints for the listener, it is another moment of genuine beauty on the smallest scale that marks out Haydn’s writing at this time as being more than just entertaining or note spinning.

The heart of the second movement Allegro lies in the strings, with the horns back to their usual role of doubling the bass line. The Minuet and Trio sees the return of high parts for the horns, and the oboes also get their chance to enter the dance with some beautiful asides in a converstion with the horns. There’s the feeling that while we are participating in the minuet the oboes and horns are commentating from the side of the dance floor. It is a lovely affect , testament to Haydn’s abilty to elevate the simple into something more affecting. The Presto finale is gone almost before it starts, a shooting star to close the piece.

This doesn’t feel like church music. More likely Haydn was taking an existing form and trying it on for size. In a way, listening to more of Haydn’s music each week, this is one of the features that is becoming clearer. Haydn is never less than inventive; he always tries something new. The invention may be small, but he is always playful,  trying to extend himself. The challenge is you have to listen very carefully to his music because it doesn’t give up itself easily and it is just too easy to miss the delicate, precise invention that is Haydn’s watermark. Everything is small gestures, subtle voices, which means the listener has to work just that little bit harder to discover the genuine beauty and craftsmanship in these works.


Project Haydn #4 – Symphony No.4

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Symphony No.4 in D major Hob I:4 (c1757/61)

For the fourth symphony Haydn returns to D major and the three movement pattern:

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The opening Presto is assertive from the start, self-confident and lean. Very much what I have come to expect from Haydn so far and with enough flourishes that this muscular music doesn’t outstay its welcome.

The Andante is again, in the tradition of the time, for strings only. Haydn asks the violins to play con sordino (with a mute) and sempre piano (always quietly). The main feature is Haydn’s decision to write a syncopation, with the second violins out of step with the first violins, while the violas and bass parts imitate a steady walk. The effect is one of mood. For Peter Naur (2011, p.22), this suggests:

Over this accompaniment long drawn, rapturous phrases, in a persoanly intimate tone of voice, like a heart overflowing withn thankfulness, float along.

Naur’s view is influenced by his view that the symphony is in total a self-portrait. For me the andante seems less introspective than he suggests. The steady tread of the bass line suggest a walk in darkened corridors, perhaps by flickering candlelight, while the syncopation and long phrasing in the first violins could easily be unsettled thoughts. There is always a danger in trying to express music in words, so perhaps it is better to end by observing that this is early Haydn at his inventive best, although somewhat on a smaller, modest scale than we will find in the symphonies to come.

The Tempo di minuetto is another of Haydn’s elegant summations, if a little square. There are one or two lovely touches, but I cannot help the feeling that Haydn is working well within himself in this movement.


Naur, P. (2011). The Meaning of Joseph Haydn’s Symphonies. Retrieved from

Project Haydn #3 – Symphony No.3

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Symphony No.3 in G major Hob I:3 (c1759/60)

After the slight pleasures of the Symphony No.2 this symphony feels and sounds like a leap forward, confident, open and full of little touches of invention that are part of Haydn’s genius.

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The opening Allegro is the most substantial movement. Opening forte with a dotted rising scale that forms the thematic material. There is a wonderfully carefree spirit to the whole thing and the woodwinds are given just a fraction of spotlight, while the horns are still utilised very simply.

The second movement Andante moderato is scored for strings only. Certainly it is much more interesting piece that from the second symphony. The four groups are much more independent and Haydn creates a sense of shadows and reflections as the violins engage in a whsipered conversation with the violas and cellos. This isn’t openly sensual music, but the is a delicate undercurrent.

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The following Menuet -Trio is a very simple canon, another dotted rising scale, with the voices being a single bar apart. In the trio Haydn gives the oboe and horn fleeting solos that add a whistful freshness to the movement.

The Presto finale is a joyous fugue in two subjects that rips along with breathless energy, consuming 131 bars of music in just under two minutes. When I first heard this I could not but help think of the incredibly finale of Mozart’s Jupiter Symphony, which is on a whole other level.

While neither deeply profound nor startling, this symphony has an easy going vitality and displays the first shoots of invention that were to mark our Haydn as a symphonist. The Danish computer scientist Peter Naur wrote two lengthy essays outlining his personal observations and theories about Haydn’s symphonies, The Meaning of Joseph Haydn’s Symphonies (2011) and Haydn’s Symphonies – A Lost Tradition (2012). In the first essay he sought to characterise each symphony according to his own scheme and theory, based upon a close reading of the scores and biographical details. In the case of the Symphony No.3, Naur (page 30) sees the work as:

…seems to be a portrait of [a] man of powerful intellect… In the Andante moderato, we hear him pondering over serious issues. Perhaps this is aportrait of Count Morzin, père (1693-1763)

Listening again I am not sure I hear Naur’s characterisation in this symphony. Perhaps my understanding is coloured by Schubart’s view of the mood of G major as being:

Everything rustic, idyllic and lyrical, every calm and satisfied passion, every tender gratitude for true friendship and faithful love, – in a word every gentle and peaceful emotion of the heart is correctly expressed by this key.

Project Haydn #2 – Symphony No.2

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Symphony No.2 in C major Hob I:2 (1760)

Like its predecessor, Haydn’s second symphony is in three movements and compposed for same, small forces as the first symphony. There are no repeats and so the whole work comes in at around 9 minutes in length – hardly symphonic at all.

Haydn chose C major for this symphony. Schubart, in his writing on affective musical keys, described C major as:

Completely Pure. Its character is: innocence, simplicity, naïvety, children’s talk.

That’s a pretty good description of the symphony overall. The first movement Allegro is bright and convivial. It’s charms are straightforward and I am reminded of the way Graham Greene used to catagorise his fiction as novels or entertainments. We are definitely about entertainment here.

The second movement Andante is very slight. It is marked sempre piano and Haydn scores it for strings only, even reducing the textures further by having first and second violins play one line, with violas and the bass another, an octave apart  col basso. For me the charm wear thin very quickly and it is pretty forgettable music. The finale is in a rondo form and has some nice touches and is carefree and sunny thorughout.

One more minor point is the use of trills in this symphony. Spread liberally throughout all three movements, they clearly show that at this early stage Haydn was still heavily influenced by the practices of the time. As yet, he really had not either found his feet or tapped into the level of invention that was going to mark him out a truly great composer and the ‘father of the symphony’.



Project Haydn #1 – Symphony No.1

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Symphony No.1 in D major Hob I:1 (1759)

So far as I can confirm, we really do not know much about how Haydn came to write the first of his symphonies. He was 25 years old at the time and was employed as Kapellemeister by a Count Morzin, spending time between Vienna and the family home in Dolní Lukavice in what is now the Czech Republic.

The symphony is in three movements and at roughly fifteen minutes long (with all the repeats) is a confident work. The first movement opens with a Mannheim Crescendo for the full orchestra (oboes, bassoons, horns, strings & continuo) that leads immediately into an exuberant, fizzing presto. The second movement, marked andante (walking pace) has the feel of a graceful courtly dance and probably felt very familiar and cosy to Count Morzin and his family. The finale, again marked presto, is driven by a more animated dance like feel, this time in the mood a joyous closing. There is some lovely use of dynamics to add to the playfulness.

In Haydn’s era there was a general perception amongst the musically education that music keys had affective characteristics in that each key suggested a certain set of emotions. The writer Christian Schubart catagorised these in his book Ideen zu einer Aesthetik der Tonkunst. A simplified version can be found here. Schubart description of the key of D major is:

The key of triumph, of Hallejuahs, of war-cries, of victory-rejoicing. Thus, the inviting symphonies, the marches, holiday songs and heaven-rejoicing choruses are set in this key.

While there are no war-cries in Haydn’s symphony, there is the feeling of rejoicing. Perhaps Haydn knew his first symphony had to entertain and dazzle in equal measure, while not being too original. Or perhaps he was really just finding his feet, trying on the idea of the symphony for size. Whatever the truth, I suspect Count Morzin and his family would were very happy and entertained by their kapellemeister’s new piece. Could any of them have imagined how far Haydn’s symphonic adventures would take him?


Who owns the child?

“As teachers and school leaders I have always thought we have two priorities; one is the health and safety of the child, and the second is the academic wellbeing of the child.”

Tom Bennett

It always helps to simplify ideas down to the simplest terms, stripping away the noise from the signal. Tom Bennett, interviewed by John Tomsett and included in his new book, does that in the quote above.

I doubt there are many teachers or school leaders who would argue with the basics of Tom Bennett’s point. When I was a fulltime teacher, and now as a headteacher, a large proportion of my time is spent working on issues around student welfare and student learning. The two are inescapably linked. Whether one ascribes to the details or not, Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs clearly shows how making sure students feel safe and loved is essential if we want to be successful in the main part of our mission, which is to educate them. The how of this varies and it is in the how that the debate really lies.

9781785831683One of the reasons I enjoyed Tomsett’s book so much is because he is reluctant either declare there is no crisis or accept the argument that there is an ongoing mental health crisis in our schools. The book is interspersed with a series of interviews with educators, mental health experts and researchers who offer differing persepctives of the topic. As Tomsett writes himself, more than once, as you think on the views presented it is easy to move from feeling everything is overblown to feeling there really is a crisis, and then back again. As one of the interviewees says, ‘everybody has a mental health‘. Once we recognise this it becomes an imperative to put in place school wide systems to ensure both support for the majority and attention for those who really are suffering from something more real, more painful and potentially more harmful than just the normal ups and downs of life.

There are some broad points where I felt myself agreeing with. At various points Tomsett writes about how one of our goals has to be to help students learn and understand that life does have its ups and downs, and that sometimes the best thing is to push through challenges and give the tasks at hand our best effort. Some might argues this is the puritan work ethic in diguise (or just the British stiff upper lip), supressing feelings in an attempt to ignore them and thereby doing harm in the longer term. But I tend to agree with Tomsett. The truth is that as students rise through school the stakes naturally get higher. The reality of grades and examinations is inescapable. I often tell our Upper Sixth students that the final year of school is a little like climbing a mountain up until Christmas, with each completed and submitted internal assessment another step on the way to the summit. Sadly though there is really no time to admire the view at that point, as once January arrives it pretty much is a downhill ride towards examinations and graduation. The key to success is to try and enjoy the ride, while methodically  making sure you keep ahead of the game and all the commitments. It is only when the student gets to the end and look sup at the mountain he or she climbed that you get the satifaction of knowing they did it.

The book is a mixture of three threads woven into a whole. Tomsett reflects on some key moments in his life at points in the book; these never feel forced and certainly they help us sympathise with his thinking. The second thread are the interviews. The final thread, and probably the most interesting to me, is putting ideas into practice in the context of a school. The later chapters are particulrly strong. Who owns the child? (chapter 27) left me with both food for thought and an urge to take some of the systems from Huntington School and apply them to our context. I have asked a few times in meetings the very question, ‘Who owns the child?’ and it seems to me this is the essential question in any school system that claims to be student-centered. All students need somebody they can lean on, and every school needs a system for making sure students are supported and encouraged, while also serving as a way to identify quickly students who are having difficulties. With ownership comes a sense of responsibility, which the best tutors have towards their tutees.

In this area there are two fascinating ideas that Tomsett describes. The first is simplicity itself – clarity in describing how the role of the tutor works. It sounds obvious but it is important that in any tutorial (or pastoral) system there are some givens and consistent practices. Of course, in an ideal world, every tutor would be passionate about their students and be always present as a cheer leader, a motivator and as a first responder. In the real world teachers come in all shapes and sizes; some seem to be natural tutors, while others put the role a very distant second to teaching a subject. It is understandable; we are after all talking about educators with different levels of passion for the many facets of the role – they are just as varied a group as any other collection of human beings might be. So in oder to have some quality control, some consistency, it is important to make sure some basics are followed consistently. Tomsett is generous enough to share some of these details, including the basic functions of tutors in his own school, and their Goals-Resilience-Effort-Attitude-Tools (GREAT) model, designed to support student developmentand wellbeing.

The secondly and equally valuable idea came to Tomsett after reading about the development of the Apgar test for newborn babies. The Apgar test is a quick method to check the health of a new born, combining  5 indicators on a scale of 1 or 2, with a total possible score of 10. (I remember when my own son was born in 2010 seeing the attending nurse score Max as a 9 out of 10 – a score which calmed me down no end!) Tomsett has developed his own version of the Apgar test designed to help tutors spot students whose mental health may potentially be at risk. Again, it is a simple idea, easy to implement and provides a basis for discussion in school.


Apgar test: 5 Criteria (thenurselockerroom, 2013)


Apgar Scores (thenurselockerroom, 2013)

While the various experts may not agree on everything, one common conclusion is that schools can only really raise concerns. It is not their place or wothin their expertise to diagnose real mental illness. This is something that resonates with me, as at various points throughout my career colleagues have come to me to discuss students and share their personal views of why a student is the way they are. A smaller subset are those who classify anything beyond the usual by identifying a student as ‘lazy’ or ‘difficult’. In those cases my immediate reaction, which I work hard to hide, is to think it says more about the teacher than the student, but until we leanr more any judgement is rash. Just as dangerous are the times colleagues have intervened in ways that only make the situation worse. Always it is withn good intentions, but it is important for all of us as teachers to remember that we are not psychologists or therapists, so what support and advice we do give is both general and pragmatic. And as Tomsett and Bennett both say in their own ways, sometimes the best advice is to encourage a student to see the task through to the best of their ability. Whether successsful or not, trying to do our best in any given situation is the greatest challenge we can set ourselves. You never know, we may surprise ourselves.

Tomsett, J (2017). This Much I Know about Mind Over Matter… Improving Mental Health in Our Schools. Crown House Publishing Limited, Wales.

Apgar Score [online image], (2013). Retrieved March 19, 2017 from